New Year’s Eve noise making at our airport

Builders,

90% of the day our little rural airport is virtually silent, you can sit on the front porch with a book and a coffee, and hear someone six houses away close their front door. But we also have periods where the noise of creativity and freedom are fully celebrated, and New Years eve is always a day filled with sound and celebration.

.

The day started early with Vern flying his little plane featured in the previous story. He had not had it out in a long time, and vowed both that he wouldn’t fly it again with its old fiberglass tank, and that he would fly it by the end of the year. He made good on both by getting airborne with the new aluminum tank on the last day of the year. Shortly there after, neighbors came by to use my range, and the volume of sound increased. Later tonight, there will be a traditional bonfire on the south over run, with potent fireworks from Alabama, and a light show provided by tossing Corvair magnesium cooling fans in the bonfire.

.

When I was in High School in NJ, the state saying was “If it is fun it requires a permit, if it is real fun. it is illegal”. Florida is not without faults, but saying the state  motto of “Hey, hold my beer” is basically the only legal requirement before having fun.

.


.

Above Marlin lever in .45-70, AR-15 in 5.56. Hard to believe the designs of these to machines are 130 and 59 years old respectively.

.


.

Above, Mint Ruger Blackhawk in .44 Special and a J frame sized Taurus in .22WMR. Blackhawk was both pleasant to shoot and surprisingly easy to shoot accurately.

.

Hoping all our builders have a fun new years eve. There are so many good things to do in the coming year, I gently remind everyone to be or find a designated driver tonight, or better yet, hang out with friends in your own neighborhood. We will have more news on 2017 events early next week.

.

-ww.

.

Critical Understanding #7, The Most Qualified Pilot, ALONE.

Builders;

Four years ago, I was invited to a small, private, industry think tank at Oshkosh. Most home builders would know the names of 20 out of the 25 people in the room for the four hour meeting. The topic was the FAA proposal that might allow the owner of a new homebuilt to fly along with the test pilot on the first flights of his plane. 22 of the 25 people in the room thought this was a bad idea. Jeremy Monnett and myself went further to characterize the proposal as “F#@king retarded”

.

One of the three people for it, was the guy who founded the most successful kit plane company in history. He gave a 30 minute lecture that boiled down to these points: Builders are going to do it anyway; It is a pride thing, the guy wants to tell all his friends he was in on the first flight; and a second guy in the plane could ‘help’ the pilot. I have a lot of respect for what the speaker accomplished in his career, but I cut that respect in half in that 30 minutes. In my book, the system need never condone anything just because people would do it, anyone who factors in pride on anything to do with something as serious as test flights is an idiot, and there is no single engine sport aircraft that requires a crew of two, and if it did, they would have to be both well versed in professional training called CRM (Cockpit Resource Management).

.

You think 22-3, this would never pass, but guess what, influence counts for more than votes, so today, it is now possible to apply to the FAA to have two people in your plane for the first flight. I have great respect for the FAA, but this decision is the worst one they have made in my 28 years in homebuilding. Before anyone writes in to tell me that “If it wasn’t safe, the FAA wouldn’t allow it” stop, and answer me this: The FAA allows airlines to serve alcohol to people sitting in the exit rows of airliners, so please tell me how they are “Always about safety”.

.

It is perfectly OK and right to have pride in the plane you created, but when it comes to operation, and particularly the test flying, put all that emotional stuff away, it is time for cold, ego free thinking and logic. The golden rule of this is the most qualified person available flies the test hours, ALONE.

.

The most qualified pilot available should be the only person in the plane for the first 40 hours of phase one testing. There is no Corvair powered plane that needs a second crewman, and phase one is about testing the aircraft, not flight training nor familiarization.

.

From my 2009 flight ops manual:

.

NEVER fly a plane you have not been checked out in, even if this means going to the other side of the country and paying for lessons. (expensive, but cheaper than crashing) If you want to get checked out for less, have someone fly off the 40 hours on your plane, and then have a CFI check you out in your own plane. If the plane is a single seater, ask the DESIGNER what is an equivalent 2 seat plane.

.

NEVER have two people in the plane, even if the FAA approves it

.

If no one will fly your airplane when it is done, ask yourself if this is a reflection of your work or attitude toward safety. If you have a good perspective, and a well built plane that has a good engine/airframe combination, there will be skilled people willing to fly it.

.

This is nothing new. My 2009 flight ops manual clearly states this, and I preached it long before I wrote the manual. Dan Weseman has a slight modification on there where he states “If you wish to do your own test flights, them get the training to become fully qualified to do so” Both he and I are absolutely in lock step that there should NEVER be two people in a Corvair powered plane for any of the phase one flight testing. If anyone chooses to do this, even if the FAA grants them special permission to do so, it makes no difference, In my perspective, 2 people in a plane for any minute of a flight test is a GROSS PILOT ERROR, and is not a logically defensible position. People can disagree with that, but they own the consequences for the results, not me, and if any official from the FAA or NTSB or a lawyer taking a deposition asks me, I am going to tell the truth, that it was a stupid thing I warned people not to do.

.


.

Above, Paul’s 3,000cc Corvair, cowling open for a pre flight inspection. The engine has required absolutely zero adjustments in it’s first hours of flying, which included several full sets of aerobatic maneuvers. Top cowl is held on by 1/4 turn Camlocs, it comes off in less than 60 seconds. Notice how traditional baffling allows complete visual inspection of the engine. Carefully inspecting the complete engine after every test flight is what people who want to die of old age, at home, in bed do.  Others are fee to look through the oil fill door and call it good. Take your pick.

.


.

Above, Paul Salter’s 3,000 cc Panther taxing out for it’s 8th test flight. This is the 10th flying Panther. At the controls is Bob Wooley, who built the second flying Panther. Bob has flown 5 of the 10 flying Panthers, has about 150 hours in the type, and has several thousand hours in high performance home builts, and had a long career in the USAF flying F-101s and F-4s. Dan Weseman did the first flights on Paul’s plane, and Bob is picking up the next rounds. Dan and Bob are the best qualified pilots for the flight tests to evaluate the plane.

.

Paul is a good pilot, with several hundred hours time, much of it with outstanding instructors. A lot of his time is in Beech T-34s, a complex aircraft. But he hasn’t flown during the time he was building, nor does he yet have a tailwheel sign off. The panther is a very easy tailwheel to fly, but that isn’t a viable reason to ignore the common sense requirement to have the rating and the refresher training before flying it.

Paul is an aviation professional, an aerospace engineer working for the US Navy. He does this for a living, and the US Government, department of the Navy. He has worked his way to GS-12 rating, paying about $80K/year, because the US Navy agrees that he exercises good judgement.

.

When some idiot at your EAA chapter meeting says any variation onWell that guy owns it so he should test fly it no matter what, it’s a pride thing” look at him and understand no professional aviation organization would pay that guy $10 for his opinion because he is an idiot. Contrast how Paul’s decision to have the tests done by the most qualified pilots available reflects the fact that his opinion on aviation matters is worth $100K a year. It is a free world, and anyone can follow either example, but 28 years in homebuilding has conclusively shown me that listening to $10 idiots is a short cut to the cemetery.

.

Note Book Section:

Make line 7.1 in your Hand Book a entry that reads the full name and address of the person who will do the test flight on the plane. This needs to include their total hours, and time in type, their last medical, their most recent flight, and the N-Number of the plane they did type training in, and the dates of this training.  

.

Make line 7.2 in your Hand Book an entry of that pilots signature, and a statement that they have read and comprehended every word in you POH for the plane, all of these articles, and the flight ops manual, and the airframe POH provided by the airframe manufacturer, and the flight wil;l be done in accordance with these limitations.

.

-ww.

.

Vern’s 5/8 scale L-4.

Builders,

Most Corvair builders know that Vern Stevenson is our neighbor and friend here at our little airport. He he is a life long welder, and has worked with me on Corvair stuff for many years. He also has done a lot with Dan and Rachel Weseman at SPA/Panther, and at our airport, he is known as a gregarious and hard working guy.

.

If you are a regular reader, then you saw this about Vern and snakes, and his vehicle which is half Geo metro and half Lancair 320: Fun with Agkistrodon Piscivorus and Vern’s Aero-Trike.

Or you can see pictures of his 100 mpg light trike project at the bottom of this: Weekend work, December 2015.

Or read about Vern’s 49 year old welder in constant use: American made tools, built to last.

Or read bout his years welding on US Navy aircraft: Shop Notes, 10/26/14

Or just look at a Corvair Sand Dragster he built in the 1980s: Corvair Performance from 1980-2016.

.

But below are pictures of one of Vern’s half dozen light planes. It is a 5/8 scale L-4 grasshopper. He built it about 10 years ago. It is made out if a lot of parts and materials dug out of the Sun n Fun Fly-mart, when that event was aimed at homebuilders rather than airshow spectators. He had about 6 months of part time work and $3,000, most of which was the used Global two cylinder engine. The plane is a tribute to scrounging and very skilled budget building. Not mainstream, but very ” Old School.”

.


.

Above, the plane sitting in my front yard. The wheels are very light ATV aluminum, and the tires were knobbies before Vern shaved them with a hand held electric planer. Tundra tires for $20 for the pair, wheels included.

.


.

Above, the fuselage is steel tubing, mostly 1/2″-.035 and 3/8″-.035.Instrumentation is as simple as it gets, behind the panel is a very complex 5 gallon hand crafted 6061-T-O tank. The aluminum in it cost $25, but the skill to make it took perhaps a decade of welding professionally to develop.

.

 

.

Above, 16 seconds of the Global running on my ramp. It is about, 1,000 cc. It was a purpose built aircraft motor that used many VW parts, but it has a unique cast case, not a cut down one. It is ‘about’ 35 hp. The prop is a 54 x 28, statics about 2950 or so.  The plane has tiny die springs in the gear.
.


.

Above, the L-4 style skylight. Note all the little aerodynamic points like streamlined struts and fairings including the strakes behind the trailing edges. The plane has split flaps. 1-26 hanging from the rafters in my hangar.

.


.

Above, a photo with of the plane in front of Vern’s hangar before tundra tires. My suburban gives some sense of how small the plane is. The top of the wing is below the shoulder of a 6′ person.

.

If you are fresh to home building, make this your ‘take away’: If you stay at homebuilding, you can learn all of the skills Vern has over time. You can create anything you want and are willing to work for. Anything you build with your hands will be more rewarding to you as a human being than any plane that anyone buys. The Wright Brothers built the 1903 flyer, and it flew a couple of minutes, but it did more for their lives than anyone who bought a Gulfstream Jet in the last year. Exercising creativity makes people happier than acquiring things.

.

-ww.
.

Family Christmas Ornament #1

Friends:

In our family home, the tree has many ornaments, but none treasured more than a tiny little sock from 1952.

..

If you look at the little sock, you can see a small question mark stitched to it.

.

Christmas of 1952 was a moment of optimism in our family. My father had just returned from the Korean War, and my mother quietly told her mom that she was pregnant. This child would be the first of a new generation in the family. Since you had to wait to know back then, my grandmother stitched a little question mark on a tiny stocking, an optimistic look forward to her first grandchild. Between my Fathers safe return and a new life coming, it was a good Christmas.

.

Shortly after the Holiday, My father was emergency recalled to Korea. The unsettling  circumstances of his departure are in this story: A clarification and a century old story.

.

Months later, my brother was born. He came more than a month early. At that moment, my father was near Wolmi-do island with the 1st Marine Division, under communist air attack. My mother had not heard from him in weeks, went to the delivery room knowing only that he was in an area of hard fighting. Ten days later my father’s unit was withdrawn to Japan.

.

By chance, a friend said that there had been a message for him. A search of hundreds of notes in the com center revealed one that only said “Lt. j.g. Wynne: Boy. Wife, baby, doing well.” A drive to another base finds a Ham radio operator, then a clear connection to another Ham in California, and a phone link. My mother tells him she has chosen to name the boy Michael. My father is very moved; it is his own father’s name.

.

It is several months before he can come back. It was a difficult birth, and my brother is born with terrible colic. My mother is exhausted when he arrives, and collapses in sleep. Here is my father’s home-coming from his first war: He is a new father, rocking his son to sleep in a quiet apartment in California. This tiny boy in his arms is named for his own father, the hero of my father’s world, a man who is fading in a long twilight of his life. On this evening in August of 1953, my father certainly understands how fortunate he is. He is married to a very strong person; he has survived a war that others have not; and he holds his own son in his arms.

.

Sixty-four years later, I have the unspeakable good fortune to still have both of my parents. It is Christmas eve, and they are both resting upstairs as I type this in the kitchen. In the morning, my brother, the origin of all the optimism of Christmas ’52, will arrive with his own family. There will be many bright and fun moments tomorrow, but through it all, my thoughts will remain focused on how my family and myself have been the recipients of countless blessings over the decades the little sock first appeared on a tree.

.

May all of you enjoy taking time to consider the parents, both here and past, who made our world and our lives possible. -ww.

 

.

 

Critical Understanding #6, The “Two Minute Test”

Builders:

The “Two Minute Test” is a critical, required before test flight procedure. designed to insure your planes engine and systems will run at full power for two minutes at full static RPM and climb out angle. This simulates the time and power it will take your aircraft to reach pattern altitude. If it has an issue with power after that, making a precautionary landing from that point is vastly easier than having an issue at 300′ AGL.

.

This test is nothing new, I published detailed notes on it in our Flight Operations Manual eight years ago, and I wrote stories  about it all the way back to 2002. Unfortunately, I believe less than half of builders do it before taking their first flight. I can think of 5 planes off the top of my head that would not have been damaged or wrecked if the builder had just run this test and discovered he had an issue on the ground instead of at 300′.  I am including this in this Critical Understanding series, because I want to increase the percentage of builders who use it, hopefully to 100%.

.

With that goal, we will have line entries for the test, in your Hand Book. I will suggest these at the bottom of this article. If everyone does the test, and logs the results in their Hand Book, we can avoid a lot of needless accidents. If a guy doesn’t want to do it, I can’t force him to, but I’ll be blunt with everyone: if a builder doesn’t do the test, I don’t consider his plane to be airworthy for test flying.

.

If he has insurance coverage based on claiming his engine is “Built and operated to WW standards”, and he has an accident, his insurance company could try to get out of paying the claim. Many companies pay the claim, and then try to go after everyone who produced a product in the plane, even if the accident was obviously pilot error. If the accident could have been prevented with a two minute test, I will have zero hesitation about pointing that out. BTW, that isn’t a hypothetical situation, insurance companies hire bottom feeder lawyers to harass manufactures on pilot error accidents all the time. The other side of the coin is simple: if you are smart and use the test, it is a tool that will offer you great protection, and if you log book and Hand Book have entries confirming that you performed it, neither the FAA nor your insurance company can give you a hard time about it, and I will consider it my duty to tell everyone that you did your due diligence on risk management.

.

A full, detailed explanation of the Two Minute Test can be found in this story : Understanding Flying Corvairs Pt. #5, Two Minute Test. This is a lengthy article with many good points about testing, I consider it required reading for builders about to start a test program. The Two Minute Test can also be found in our Flight Operations Manual.

.

Note Book Section:

Make line 6.1 in your Hand Book a entry that reads the full static RPM. It should also note the prop and pitch, and the atmospheric conditions at the time. It must also include the fuel and the timing settings.  

.

Make line 6.2 in your Hand Book an entry under the same conditions as 6.1, but with But it has to note the CHT of the engine at the end of the Two Minute Test.

.

TEMP LIMIT NOTES:

Although GM rated the engine at 575F as the CHT redline, under no circumstances should you allow the CHT to Exceed 425F under the spark plugs or 400F on the bottom of the heads. If it does, stop the test. If the engine exceeds the limit in less than 2 minutes, read this: Cylinder Head Temperature measurement and Corvair CHT, letters and notes. There are many links in the stories to further reading on CHT’s in Corvairs. Read them.

.

If the Engine starts off with a static RPM of say 2750, but during the test the rpm starts coming down to 2740, 2730, 2720, BEWARE, It is detonating. STOP at once. Critical Understanding #4, ANY loss of RPM is Detonation.

.

Anytime you observe an engines’ CHT numbers move up smoothly, but suddenly get hotter at 2 or 3 times the previous rate, THE MOTOR IS DETONATING. Stop the test, solve the issue. The motor need not exceed 400F to have this issue. If the engine starts off warm at 200F and slowly works its way to 300F in the first minute, but suddenly in 15 seconds adds another 100F, it is detonating, stop.

.

-ww.

.

 

 

 

 

.

 

A love beyond this life.

Builders:

Four and a half years ago, a Corvair builder named Ed Jeffko got in his Lycoming powered Glasair and took a flight over the Cascade mountains. He never returned. An extensive search and the passage of years have found no trace.

.

Ed was a very lucky man. Not for how he was lost, but speaking of the life he had, and specifically the extraordinary woman he shared it with, his wife Claire. When he was missing for 6 months, Claire wrote a very impassioned letter, explaining why she supported her husbands flying, and how it defined the man she loved. The letter is printed below, and it deeply moved nearly everyone who read it. It spoke of a love that was not a selfish desire to posses, but the love that fully supports another’s spirit.

.

Last week, Claire wrote the letter directly below, an update four years later, to let everyone know that the love she has for Ed, and the example of how he lived has sustained and nurtured her in the passing years. It is a beautiful letter. Nearly all of us have someone, family or friend, who doesn’t understand our need to build and fly. Someone important in our lives that we have never found the right words to have them understand. Perhaps sharing Claire’s letters with these people will allow them to feel what you could not explain.

.

Claire’s  December 2016 letter:

.

“Ed and our Glasair were never found. It will be five years come next July that he flew away to be with all the other “birds” that need to fly. Not want, but need to fly. Big difference. I really don’t want to have the plane found, and Ed is not there anymore. But, he is in my heart and I will always say I am married, because I am. No one could take his place. However, I grew strong by little bitty steps and somehow found myself a nice life, laughter, and a treasure trove of friends who shored me up when I could not even walk. Somehow, I knew he would be so pissed if I whined and cried forever about losing him. And, so I did what he always said “he” did…just put one foot in front of the other and keep going forward, and it worked. I learned to run our business without him, I learned how to live with out him. He taught me well. However, I have decided I will find him…when I pass I will be cremated and my ashes flung from an airplane high above the Cascades…He thinks he’s safe ! Ha! At least one molecule will find him! Life is good, and finite. I learned that the hard way. Please always remember that, and be kind and love one another. We are all in the same…well, big ass airplane! –Claire.”

.

========================

.

The original 2012 story:  Ed and Claire Jeffko, a love story.

.

Friends, 

I have exchanged a few emails with Claire Jeffko, and I asked her permission to share with you her letters about her husband Ed. I thought they are very moving letters. It made me think about how we all promise to cherish, love and support on our wedding day, but very few of us can say that we have always fulfilled our vows. Here is a letter from a woman who lived up to hers.

.

 Last July Ed did not return from a flight in his Glasair over the Cascade mountains. It is very a rugged area, and the accident site has never been found. Many  spouses in the same position would regret their loved one ever flew. Not Claire. Her letter is the finest example of  how real love seeks to support the passions and dreams of a mate:

.

“William, Thank you for your kind response.  Ed loved everything about flying and I mean everything.  If he could have been a bird, he would’ve.  He flew with the wind and was the most up to date and careful pilot I
 have ever known.

 When I first met Ed over 33 years ago, he was flying a little Cessna
 150.  Green.  We flew every single day we could, which was often.
 After we got married, we had the 150 for about four more years.  Then
 he traded it for a D-4 Cat to work on our property.  Let me tell you,
 a pilot without a plane is a sorry situation.  I could only handle it
 for a year and then forced the issue to  buy another plane as he was
 driving me crazy!!!  So, we bought a Piper Cherokee which we still
 have.  The Piper turned Ed back into the man I knew and loved.  The
 man had to fly.  When the Glasair kit came out we fell in love with it
 and although it took more years than we wanted to complete the plane
 we finished and had it signed off about two years ago.  When our
 grandkids saw the Glasair they were not happy.  After all, we would
 lug all their bikes, trikes, and assorted stuff over the mountains for 23 years.   But, in the Glasair there were but two seats….Grandma and Grandpa seats. Certainly not grandchild friendly. I helped every inch of the way to build that plane and the N number was my birthday.  Flying the Glasair was as close to heaven as we could get, especially with the clear canopy. We essentially were flying our dream.

 And, so last July as he went to pick up one of our grandsons for the
 summer, Ed and the Glasair 743CA went down in the North Cascades,
 taking so many dreams with it.  However,  Ed was a pilot through and
 through and wherever he is, I know he is flying. – Claire“

Claire also added:

“We may never find him. He and that plane were as one. But, I will search for him the rest of my life.”

.

If you go to a zoo and look at a tiger or a bear in a cage, you will often see them repetitively pacing in a trance. You don’t need to be insightful to understand that a wild animal in a cage looses it mind and all the elements of what made it fascinating in nature. All that remains is its body, and only the most ignorant observer thinks they are seeing the actual animal. On the other end, domesticated animals consider their pen home and are happiest with the security it seems to provide. In extreme cases they will return to, and stay in, their pen even when the barn is burning down.

Men with real value to their lives are neither wild animals nor fully domesticated ones. They have a full range of actions. Most men today have the domesticated end down pat. There are a lot of good aspects of this, but alone, it is unbalanced. Powerful forces of our society steer men to and reward them for becoming fully domesticated. There is no such general acceptance for the man who seeks to have his individual adventure, make his own path, reject the fears he was told to internalize.

Many spouses of both genders, meaning well, seek to protect and shield their mate, to prevent the possibility of any harm. Claire’s letter is the rejection of this. She understood that a large and integral part of the man she loved was a free bird. One can try to justify caging a bird by claiming to ‘protect’ him, but we know this only reduces one to being a warden, not a protector. Her letters speak of fulfilling and supporting all aspects of Ed’s life, all of his passions and facets. Her reward was 33 years with a full person, not half of one.

What makes aviators different? some one from outside of aviation would read Claire’s words as some type of accident story. People inside of aviation, people still committed to having full lives including adventure, read her words as a very moving love story. People outside of flying would only focus on Ed’s accident, and think of his ‘bad luck.’ Aviators, Ed included, would see just the reverse, that Ed was one lucky guy, because he obviously found the right person to share his life with.

.


.

-ww

Zenith 750, 2850cc Corvair, Roger Grable

Builders

Below is a picture of Roger Grable’s Zenith CH-750 stol, flying since 2015. I have a number of stories of flying builders to catch up on, particularly Zenith builders, look for these stories over the next few weeks.

.


.

Above, Roger and his lovely wife pose with their Zenith 750, powered by a 2,850cc Corvair engine. The date on the photo is 12/22/16.

.

The Grables came to Corvair College #22 in Texas, and they liked what they saw. After thinking it over, Roger decided to have us build his engine while he concentrated on the airframe. Roger and his grandson came to the next college, learned a lot of operational procedures, and test ran his engine: Corvair College #23 – 2850cc Engine, Roger Grable, CH-750 Builder .

.

Life kept Roger busy, and delayed him getting his plane finished until 2015. He wisely selected an experienced Zenith pilot to cover the first tests. All went very smooth and he was very happy with progress. About the 7th test hour, Roger started the plane to taxi it across the ramp, and it ran rough, accompanied by a knocking sound. A moment later it went back to normal operation, but it was a question that remained in Roger’s mind. We spoke about it. I told him, no questions asked, drive it right over to the near by Corvair College #34 in Mexico MO, at the Zenith factory, I built it, I would get to the bottom of it, period.

.

Roger brought the engine over the last afternoon of the College, and we formed a plan for me to take it back to Florida. Roger said he and his wife were planning a trip to my state, and would like to pick it up asap. In the back of his mind was a question about the crank, if it might have been the source of the noise. I told him we would find out.

.

Two weeks later, Roger and his wife came to my shop, to pick up the motor. I had taken it down to every last nut and bolt and found nothing. I had the crank inspected by two different shops in Jacksonville, and no flaws were found. After listening to a very detailed account of Rogers story, I became convinced that the original Falcon heads on the motor had momentarily stuck an exhaust valve, something that had happened on another set of heads from 2012. However, I understood that the Grables confidence in their new plane was on the line, they had been good customers, and there was a simple way to make sure they returned to the feeling they had for the first hours of operation.

.

I went down to the SPA/Panther hangar, and bought a completely new 8409 crankshaft from the Weseman’s inventory for $1,500. This was used to reassemble the Grable’s engine. The whole job, teardown, reassembly and test run took a day and a half of labor. They were very gracious, and confidence restored, they headed for home. Their total bill from me was exactly $0.00, nothing.

.

There are just two kinds of companies in our industry, those that treat people fairly, and those that don’t. I like to say the former outnumber latter, but they don’t. The only thing I can say is that the ones that treat people fairly last. The only engine company that has been continuously active in the experimental market, under the same ownership, longer than me is Lycoming. Would you like to know why? Just ask the Grables.

.

-ww.

.

.

 

 

.

.