Thought for the day: Freedom, 150 years later.

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“I have always thought that all men should be free; but if any should be slaves it should be first those who desire it for themselves, and secondly those who desire it for others.”

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Abraham Lincoln spoke the words above in 1865. He lived just 30 more days. Although he only made it to 56 years old, he out lived the institution of slavery in the United States.

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An iconic black and white photograph of a bearded Abraham Lincoln showing his head and shoulders.

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In the photo above, Lincoln is 54 years old. Most Americans believe that he was much older, based on his appearance. Although conflict and stress aged him terribly, it could not break him. He had will power, and the ability to withstand hardship and hatred without altering his purpose nor deviating from his path.  He was the ultimate proof that qualities of character are more important than any other factor in determining the value of a human life, and what can be accomplished with it.

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150 years after the end of the civil war, with physical slavery vanquished, most Americans would proclaim they live in freedom. While they enjoy possibilities others can only dream of, a reasonable person can point out that more subtle, but pervasive systems of control, pacification and subjugation confront the individual today; a consumer driven society with an indifference to smothering personal debt; Celebrities and personalities used to expunge our memory and understanding of real heroes and champions; Declining educational standards combined with the end of journalism as our parents knew it, leaving most people unaware of issues, and hardly capable of expressing their objections.

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Yet, I remain optimistic because I have great faith in the individual, acting of his own will, in the interests of himself, his family, his neighbors and this country, can still accomplish many things of great importance, even in the face of powerful forces that wish otherwise. I have no grand plan nor path, only a simple, powerful observation: When an individual creates an aircraft from his own mind and hands, and flies it with skill and control to a destination of his choosing, he is expressing his ultimate belief in the dignity of the individual and his ability and right to determine his own value. -ww.

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Something to be grateful for

On this day, on the eve of the holiest day in the Christian year, perhaps it is a good occasion to pause and consider what is worth being thankful for. Aviation is the centerpiece of my life’s work, and it is easy to forget that the achievable dreams of aviators here, are not possible to the great majority of people on earth. By the absolute luck of our birth, something none of us ‘earned’, we live in a world that has freedom for individuals to strive for things that others will never be allowed to know.

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Think about this:

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In the one hundred and eleven years since the wright brothers flew, more than eight billion humans have been born on this planet. Out of this number, perhaps fewer than 450,000 have flown a privately owned plane, and maybe a tenth of that number has flown an aircraft that they built themselves. The overwhelming number of flights of aircraft that were personal creations of the pilot happened in America.

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I do not conjure this thought to congratulate my countrymen; quite the reverse. I mention it as a reminder of their indescribable good fortune of being born in our imperfect country, but the one that affords an incredible head start on an individual achieving flight on their own skills, a dream that predates modern recorded history and perhaps language itself. Consider your good fortune compared to vast majority of humans on this planet: I don’t think your fellow humans begrudge your fortune, but I believe that they would beseech you to do something with it.

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Picture a 15 year old young man in the slums of the Angolan city of Ondjiva. He is watching a Beech 1900 of Air Nambia that comes to his small city twice a week. He wanted to fly planes but he never will. He is missing both of his feet, as he stepped on a land mine when he was 12. It had been put in the ground 24 years before he was born. The helicopter flight that saved his life will be the only time in his life he is airborne, and he does not remember it. He consoles himself that there really was no chance he would have been allowed to fly anyway, as he is a member of one of Angola’s numerous ethnic minorities, he would have been excluded from doing anything meaningful with his life, yet he still looks at the planes.  Had he been born here, his story might have been very different. His handicap would not have stopped him from flying, even racing planes. Even as a minority, could have gone to college and earned a degree in aerospace engineering, serving for decades designing cutting edge aircraft. If he was born here, he could have been Neil Loving

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Imagine a 13 year old girl living in Conakry Guinea, west Africa. It is a city of two million people, and you have never heard of it. She is watching an airliner trace a line across the sky. She has done well in school, and hopes to escape the poverty of her world and her dream is to fly one of those planes. But her dream will never happen. Her culture is world epicenter of the barbaric practice of female genital mutilation, and it is done to 96% of the women there. It is not done by the state, nor the faith, but it will be done to her by her family, who will believe they are making her a much better servant and wife, the only goal they can imagine for her. Had this girl been born here, and dreamed of flying to expand her world beyond being a mother and wife, she could have been Jerrie Mock.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerrie_Mock

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Perhaps there is a 20 year old man in Gansu province China. It is one of the poorest areas in the country, and the average wage is less that $2 a day. He has always liked machines, and harbors a private dream of being a pilot one day, but it will never happen. In a country that still has hundreds of millions of people living on less than $5 a day, there is no opportunity. He is bright, and worked hard in school, but he took a standardized test when he was 14 he didn’t do well. He knows this ended any chance of further schooling and effectively sentenced him to a life of subsistence toil. Still, when a plane flies overhead, he can not help himself, he looks up and follows it path in the sky and wonders what his life might have been. Had this man had the fortune of being born here, he would have found that our system places value on all kinds of thinking. He would be stunned to learn that one of the most influential aviators of all time had an IQ of 88. His name was John Boyd.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)

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Think of a 19 year old woman living in Ahvaz, one of the eight cities in Iran with a population over one million. As a girl she listened to her fathers stories of working on F-14s in the Iranian Air force at Mehrabad. When she was too young to know better, she told he father she wanted to be a pilot. She did not understand the look on his face or why he stopped speaking of planes to her. That was many years ago, but she still thinks about her dream when she sees a plane. But this is not her real secret. What she can not share with anyone is far more dangerous, and carries a penalty in her country: She is attracted to other women. She is good at hiding this, but one day when she is older, in a moment of weakness she will confide in the wrong person, and this will end with her in prison for 20 years. It will be considered “merciful”, she could have been sentenced to death by stoning. If this woman had been born here, she could have done anything she wanted in aviation. Her attractions would not have been a crime, and the certainly would not have been the business of the state, or anyone else. Had she been born here, she could have been Sally Ride.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally_Ride

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 Think about it……….

Sherpas. Part #2

Builders:

Maybe you read yesterdays story on Sherpas and thought my central point, that no one should follow the advice of anyone who has never built a flying plane, was a little obvious, and that everyone knows that, it’s just a given.  If you are aware of that, you have probably been around planes for a while. On the other hand, a great number of new arrivals in homebuilding either don’t know this, or think I am overstating this. I am not.

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Above, the EFI 2,700cc Corvair in 2007, at power on my dyno. This was built as a joint project with Mark at Falcon. Conclusion: It offered little or no benefit while adopting a giant level of additional risk over a simple carb. Read more here: Testing and Data Collection reference page If you want to understand what successful people are doing, read this: Carburetor Reference page

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Case in point: A potential builder contacted today expresses an interest in EFI, specifically one promoted by a guy named Robert Haynes. New guy undoubtably read Haynes’s website, which clearly states that Haynes has been working on this project for 11 years, and it has never satisfactory run, far less flown. That  is the definition of a guy standing in the village for more than a decade telling people that he is going to climb the mountain real soon, just as soon as he gets his electronic climbing gadget to work. The new arrival is yet to understand why people who want to climb the mountain work with Sherpas.

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Haynes is at least direct and honest, if misguided. He says he doesn’t believe in 5th bearings, and he is so cheap that he assembled his engine with an old worn stock cam and gear. He changed the rod bolts and goes through an elaborate balancing routine, completely missing that resizing the rods is the critical element of rebuilding them, the one step he didn’t do. His basic engine is flawed, and represents an obsession with rationalizing not doing any of the advancements we have made in Corvair in the last 15 years. He then uses this as the basis of a decade long search for a way to make a cheap homebuilt EFI system. If you are thinking I am kidding about this, the site is: http://www.hainesengineering.com/rhaines/aircraft/corvair.htm. If you think I am judging harshly, read the part where he took apart a very filthy, internally rusty core, and he is actually going to use the same lifters again, because spending $3.60 each for new ones is a waste of money in his book.

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Now think that our new arrival looked at Haynes’s website, including his wooden motor mount and plywood disc in place of a test prop, the engine roughly running for 20 seconds in a video clip without a cooling shroud, nor even a rudimentary exhaust system, read descriptions of going through a series of batteries trying to make it run, even looked at Haynes welding skills like the photo below, and believes that this guy is on to something that negates my observations on EFI : Fuel Injection – Corvair flight engines reference page

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Above, a photo of the motor mount weld Hanes did for his VW powered Thacher CX4 project. If this was good enough to photograph and use, I contend that Mr. Haynes doesn’t know how much he doesn’t know about aircraft construction. If you are not familiar with the definition of the word “Hubris”, take a moment to look it up, it will enrich your understanding of a mindset that does not match well with building planes.

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Haynes might be a very nice family man, clever with computers, but his value system and workmanship has not generated anything one would include in their Corvair with the expectation of trouble free reliable performance, but evidently the new arrival to village saw this and still thought that some of these ideas were better than what the Sherpas of the flying Corvair world are doing. In 25 years of homebuiling, I have met countless people who held the same perspective, yet I can’t think of any who built a reliable plane.

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There is a mindset that wants to believe that there are countless ‘un discovered’ improvements to any system developed over 25 years that can be revealed by an amateur who looks at it for a week, particularly if that amateur is going to apply high tech in the form of electronics. The root interest is almost always the promise of saving money, or not having to put in some type of work.  It doesn’t matter that they have thought this most of their life but can’t cite 2 example cases of it being true.  If any new arrival thinks that a guy with rusty old lifters in an engine he thinks he will fly with his kids, has discovered something about Corvair powered flight that I don’t know, he is working with a mindset that is common to many people who have not, and will likely never build and fly a plane. People can send me hate mail over that, but they can’t send evidence refuting it.

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It is important to me that Homebuilding find better ways of binging new people in, not just as a spectator/ EAA member but as real, active builders with an effective plan for success, which I define as finishing a good, reliable plane and really learning skills, traditions and ethics of aviation. That is transformative in a persons life, most other aviation experiences pale in comparison.

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So, How do we get more people into a position where they have a fair chance at success in homebuilding? First, you have to be honest with them. You have to tell then that the odds are against them going in, so before they look at anything else about it, they should me most interested in one single thing: Understanding the different approaches between the 20% who make it and the 80% who don’t. If they are focused on anything else, but have not even considered this, they are almost certainly in the 80%.

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In reality the new builders don’t divide into neat groups of reasonable and unreasonable. This division and the percentages actually exist inside each new builder, and I believe that you can appeal to the reasonable side of each builder by articulately explaining why he might want to invest the real effort in transforming is abilities and knowledge, and how merely finding a short cut to a finished plane is not synonymous with this. You will not reach all people, and some will take time, but after decades of hands on teach in writing, I still think it is worth the effort. -ww.

Homebuilding, Mt. Everest and Sherpas.

Builders:

In public forums, I have often compared completing a homebuilt to trying to climb mount Everest. The comparison is a valid one. Both have these things in common: Very few people in society try it; It takes several years of prep work; It costs about $45K; It has an 80% failure rate; It has a significant risk of fatality.

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The analogy is effective because it allows builders to look at a similar task, but one that they are not emotionally invested in, and they can get a better look at their own plan, and see how it needs to be improved if they are to be in the 20%.

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When I bring up the topic at Oshkosh forums, I often ask new potential homebuilders to imaging us walking into a base camp village in Nepal, and finding 10 different storefronts, each offering assistance from their Sherpa to climb Everest. I challenge each new builder to tell me what the #1 question you have to ask any Sherpa before hiring him.  Most people get this wrong by guessing “What will it cost”. I point out that the litmus test question is “Have you ever been to the top?” Unless the answer is “Yes” only a fool would use the man’s services or advice.

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Here is the homebuilding connection: When new builders go on line to discussion groups for answers, particularly any group where people don’t use their real names, They have no idea if the guy offering the “answer” has ever built and flown a plane, or even done the specific task he is speaking of.  Listening to such people is hiring a Sherpa who no one has met before, and has probably never been to the top.

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Same goes with taking in person advice at the airport. Most people speaking of homebuilts, and often offering advice, have never built one. You name the sub topic in homebuilding, particularly alternative engines, and the unqualified advice pours forth. Challenge any one of these people, and they will quickly respond that their experience, although it isn’t in our branch of aviation, or aviation at all, is valid. I simply ask you, If you were hiring a Sherpa  to climb Everest, and he told you he had never been to the top but “All mountains are the same” would you bet the outcome of your work dreams and money on his guidance? Not if you were sane.

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I have known perhaps 500 people who have completed a homebuilt. But I have also been to Oshkosh more than 20 times, a listened to maybe 10,000 people who claimed to love homebuilts, but had never finished one. Perhaps 5,000 of the people got started once. If asked, they could only offer the reason why they quit, and their answer would likely be defensive and inaccurate. Having the ‘benefit’ of  being subjected to the other 4,999 stories of failure, I am in a better position to see common threads in the approaches that didn’t work.

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Think running out of money was the main problem? Not by a long shot. I contend that taking unqualified advice, both from the internet and in person, and particularly adopting beliefs and practices of these ‘advisors’ is the #1 problem. Often running out of money is simply a symptom of having taken a series of very wild goose chases, all on the advice of people with no first hand experience.  If I an offer only one piece of advice that you follow, make it this: Pick your advisors in homebuilding as carefully as you would pick your Sherpa in an Everest attempt. Your success depends on it, and in some cases so does your life. -ww.

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Above, Tenzing Norgay. 1914-1986. The best known Sherpa who ever lived. He and Edmond Hillary were the first two humans to summit Mt Everest.  He was named as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century by Time. The iconic 1953 photo from the summit, is of Norgay, not Hillary. Although he had just accomplished what no human before had done, it was a triumph of planning, conditioning, good decision making, courage, and will, not a technology breakthrough. Norgay didn’t take Hillary’s picture because he had never used a camera before. In the Sherpa’s arena, possession of technology was a currency of comparatively little value. Most great adventures are stories of the human spirit, consider this when planning how complex to make your aircraft.

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Below is an allegory I wrote to a Pietenpol discussion group, looking at the question of what to do when a constant flow of new people show up on the group who don’t understand the scope of the task of building an 85 year old plans built design, and they don’t believe in listening to the advice of “Sherpas” if they can find the answer they want from “tourists.” Many of the people are fixated on “saving money” and what their paint scheme will eventually be.

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The allegory element about the price of ropes relates to the discussion on 4 main bearing Corvairs vs ones with 5th bearings installed. The comments about selling stuff relate to junk being sold by people who quit, like these stories: Built by William Wynne? Built according to The Manual? . Like most of the stuff I write, some people ‘get it’, most people don’t , and some people send me hate mail. All outcomes are fine, as long as some found it thought provoking. -ww.

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“If we were Sherpas at the base camp to mount Everest, and a new person came into camp with the stated plan to climb it, and all they talked about was the colors that they had picked for their tent and then complained about the cost of quality ropes, what would you tell them? Are you being a better ambassador to mountaineering by just being polite and welcoming, or is it a better idea to explain to the new person that a successful summit is made of long and careful preparation, learning and work, and it will cost money, and by the way, your best guidance is going to come from Sherpas who have lead climbers to the summit before. You would also explain that the 10% who make it to the top follow this not just because they want to summit, but also because they want to live through it.

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After the new guy is done telling everyone in the village, who are mostly tourists, all about his color coordination and objection to rope that cost more than $4/foot, you politely say that color doesn’t matter, physical fitness and conditioning does, and although it was once done, no one climbs on $4/ft rope anymore, it is all done on $5/ft rope, that is why the book says use $5/ft rope. That once you are up on the mountain you will see strains put on the rope that you can not understand by looking at the price tag in the village, and he should just listen to you because you have been to the top, and you have also seen people killed by cheap equipment. It doesn’t matter now anyway, because he is in terrible conditioning, and it will take several seasons to get in shape, and in the long run the cost of $1/ft on rope will be meaningless then.

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The reasonable new climber will understands this. He remembers that when he became fluent in a second language, became a working musician, and when he was in competitive sports, the common thread to find the reward, was long preparation, and following the guidance of a coach who had been there before and had long demonstrated the path to many others. He understands that the goal in each of these was to “Become” something greater than he was, a word that means there was a transformation of how he felt about himself.

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He understands that his actual goal is to “become” a skilled climber, and then use these skills to summit Everest. Summiting is not the primary goal, and people who don’t want to put the work into the training and transition to being a climber, people who just want the trophy as cheap as possible, will never make it.
The Unreasonable new arrival doesn’t like to hear anything about this. He comes to the village unable to differentiate between bureaucratic rules and accepted and proven wisdom of experience. He can’t tell the difference between garbage like cliques, pecking order and blind dues paying, and the very different situation of working for something for a long time and later understanding it earned you the respect of people who had done the same. Unable to differentiate these things, he rejects it all, and honestly believes it is all negotiable and interchangeable. He does not understand that he has left suburbia, the office cubicle, and world where repeated broadcast babble is substituted for understanding. He is in a new arena, and he is just getting acquainted with the idea that his home currency isn’t very valuable here.

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The reasonable man gets to work on the task of 3,000 hours or so to transform himself into a climber. The progress of each week is self-rewarding, because the goal is the transformation, not what one might do with the skills once he has them. The unreasonable man, focused on possession of the trophy, does not start training, he starts bargaining. He wants to know if there is some way to turn 3,000 hr into 1,500 hr. He gets attached to any story that seems to be about cleverly reducing the ‘cost’ of getting to the top. He likes fir ladders instead of spruce ones, and latex tents instead of doped ones. While these ideas all have merit when selectively applied by experienced climbers, the unreasonable man’s attraction is purely about short cutting the system. He doesn’t understand that having Google translate on his I-phone isn’t the same as being able to speak a few words with the Nepalese natives.

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Completely missing the point that it costs what it cost to climb the mountain, and the real side of the equation you control is if you become a climber or not, and being an understood and respected climber is about what you know and can do, and not where you have bought tickets to, the unreasonable man is stuck on the price of things, particularly that $5/ft rope. Because he can’t tell the difference between random rules and wisdom, and because he has never operated in an office with the death penalty for small mistakes on the job, he comes up with the brilliant idea of taking a poll of the tourists in the village to find out if the Sherpas are full of shit. If 51% of the tourists say $4/ft rope is great, then this confirms what he ‘knew’ that people who want you to use $5/ft rope are just salesmen (even though they don’t sell rope). He believes in polls because they are surveys fill his internet world and are the basis of his illusion that corporations/neighbors/ politicians care what he thinks.

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To his surprise, the first people who speak up after the poll are not tourists, but climbers who have been to the top. They all tell him to use $5/ft rope. Some of them even have tales of almost falling when the previous standard was $4/ft rope. There are some people in training that say they are still thinking about climbing slowly and using $4/ft rope, but the unreasonable man, who is really just seeking any affirmation of his belief that he can save money and get the same goal, misses the point that none of the people who are in favor of $4/ft rope have been to the top, and that the original climbers on $4/ft rope were using new rope, not rope reconditioned in Pakistan. The only people who were qualified to inspect ropes and treat them were 2 shops in the US, and that costs money.

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The unreasonable man concedes the $5/ft public debate for the worst reason: He is concerned what other people in the village think. Still, at heart, he really isn’t convinced. He will revisit this exact same approach on every single aspect of preparation and training. Because most people are polite, he will not have others point out that he really isn’t getting in better shape, nor is his real knowledge of climbing increasing. Over time the progress he makes will not yield satisfaction because he can’t see the light at the end of the tunnel, which to him is getting to the top of the mountain. Because no one takes the time to say he has the wrong mindset, he ends up wasting 5 years living in the village, learning little, conducting the same type of poll over and over again.

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One day he gets fed up, declares that he would have been to the top long ago if he had been in a village of friendly Sherpas and supportive townspeople. It is all their fault. He puts up a notice on the bulletin board saying he is selling his gear, but no one wants it because it was all cheap stuff built around a $4/ft rope collection, assembled by a guy who wasn’t really into the work.

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As he is carrying the gear to the dump outside the village on his way back to suburbia, he meets a new guy walking up the trail. He makes him a great bargain, and points out that the gear includes a well known book on climbing written by a Sherpa named W. Nguyen*. Unreasonable guy has a very believable sales pitch saying the gear was great, but he didn’t need it anymore because he had decided to go back to suburbia and drive around in a three wheeled RV. New guy is very excited, because just like the unreasonable guy, his goal is to be able to tell people he climbed the mountain, not become a climber. To his perspective, he just saved a bundle of cash, and he is appreciably closer to having a summit photo on his face book page. The deal is struck and the cash exchanged just outside the entrance to the dump. The new guy carries the gear into the village, and walks into the town square where he stands on a box and introduces himself, and in short order tells everyone what decorative color he is going to paint his tent.

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* Nguyen is actually a common Vietnamese name pronounced ‘win’ just like ‘Wynne’.

12 years of Zenith’s powered by FlyCorvair Conversions.

Builders:

2015 marks the 12 th year of our work installing Corvairs into Zenith airframes. Today there are almost 100 Corvair powered Zeniths, each representing the craftsmanship of an individual working with our direction, support and components.  Throughout this time we have maintained a close working relationship with the Heintz family, Hosting 4 Corvair Colleges at their facilities, displaying aircraft in their booth at both Sun n Fun and Oshkosh, and being present at 7 of the factory open houses. I am an outspoken supporter of the designs of Chris Heintz, I have followed his teachings closely since I was an  Aeronautical Engineering student at Embry-Riddle, 25 years ago.

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Above, a 1971 photo of Chris Heintz with one of his designs. The picture was actually taken in Belgium. Note the French aircraft registry. If you look closely you can see that his modern designs like the 650, have their roots in his early work. He has been an active designer of homebuilts for nearly half the history of powered flight. Chis Heintz earned his education and his start in France, a country with a very strong history of outstanding aeronautical work. Read more: French Aviation to be admired.

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Above, Sun n Fun 2004. I stand next to Chris Heintz, in front of our own Corvair powered 601XL, N-1777W, in the Zenith display. I have personally met most of the prolific homebuilt designers, Wittman, Rutan, VanGrunsven, Davis, Monnett and many others. I can say without any hesitation that Chris Heintz is the most approachable, and also the most willing to directly share his understanding in conversation.

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Above, fast forward 10 years to Oshkosh 2014:  Myself, Grace and Chris Heintz, inside the “One week wonder” tent where the Zenith 750 was built in a single week. Chris is autographing a copy of his design book to Grace and myself. I consider this man on a plateau with Bernard Pietenpol and Steve Wittman for his commitment to producing affordable designs that provide access to flight to working Americans. In the 43 years between this and the top photo, Chris Heintz made 14 commercially successful designs, and we have built, tested and flown Corvairs on 4 of these designs.

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Above, The five Corvair powered Zeniths that flew into Corvair College #30, all parked for a photo in front of the Zenith Factory  The engine installation on these planes are clones of the one we developed in our own 601XL 12 years ago. Since then, we wrote the installation manual for it, produced hundreds of installation parts like mounts, intakes and exhausts, and have taught 800 people at colleges how to clone our engines. The five planes above are a sample of the success of cloning a proven engine set up. We will be returning to the Factory to hold Corvair College #34 this September. Read more here: Corvair College #30 Good Times and here: Corvair College #30 Running Engines

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Above, Our industry contacts have long worked to support our Corvair builders.  The photo is from 2004 at Oshkosh: Next to our personal Zenith N-1777W, I explain our dual ignition arrangement two executives from Falcon insurance, The EAA’s provider. To offer real support, an alternative engine provider must be an effective advocate for his builders on many fronts, including meeting the requirements of underwriters. Just being an engine guru is not nearly enough. Corvair engines that follow our design,  including to ones assembled by builders, are fully insurable at the lowest rates, right from the first flight, because they have an outstanding safety record. Having good effective hands on support is a critical element in this outstanding record.

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Above, We have new Corvair powered Zeniths taking to the air all the time. Above, Blaine Schwartz and his 750 that made its first flight  a month ago. Blaine built the engine at Corvair College #22. Read his story here: Flying Zenith 750, 2850 cc Corvair, Blaine Schwartz

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Above, Phil Maxson of NJ with his Corvair powered 601 XL that has been flying since 2006. We have our own private discussion group, specifically for Zenith builders working with a William Wynne conversion. It is very effectively organized and moderated by Corvair/Zenith pilot Phil Maxson. To learn more read this link: ‘Zenvair’ Information board formed.

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Both Grace and I are looking forward to another great year in aviation and building on our long standing success, working with Zenith Builders who select the Corvair for power.

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For more information on 601/650s, including pictures of 50 flying planes::

Zenith 601/650 – Corvair reference page November 2013

For more information on 750s, including pictures of flying planes:

Zenith 750 / Corvair reference page, October 2013

For more information on 701s:

Zenith 701- Corvair reference page, November 2013

More stories on Zenith 601s and 650′s, click on any title to read:

16 Flying Corvair powered Zenith 601/ 650s

Woody’s 2,850cc Corvair/601XL hits 400 hours.

New Zenith 601 XL(B), Conventional Gear, Jerry Baak, S.C.

Flying 2700 cc Zenith 601 XL(B), Alan Uhr

 Zenith 650-2700cc Dave Gardea

 Zenith 601XL-2,850cc, Woody Harris

Another new “Zenvair” 601XLB, Jim Ballew, 2700cc

Second “Zenvair”, the McDaniel’s 2700cc 601XLB

 Patrick Hoyt, new Zenith 601XL, now flying, N-63PZ

Guest writer: Phil Maxson, flying a 3100cc Corvair in his 601XL

 601XL-2700cc Dr. Gary Ray

 Zenith 601XL-3100cc Dr. Andy Elliott